UPSC Exam Syllabus 2021

UPSC Exam Syllabus 2021  for the CAPF Assistant Commandant exam has been released by the Union Public Service Commission on its official website upsc.gov.in 

The candidates who have applied for the exam can now get their CAPF Assistant Commandant Syllabus for the exam from here.

Get, all the latest updates like the session, syllabus, exam date, interview schedule, and other details here and download the UPSC Syllabus for the CAPF Assistant Commandant exam through the direct official link provided below.

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UPSC Syllabus 2020
UPSC Syllabus 2020
In this page,you will find UPSC Syllabus 2020

UPSC Enforcement Officer/ Accounts Officer Syllabus 2021 – Preview

Union Public Service Commission has released the Syllabus for UPSC Enforcement Officer/ Accounts Officer 2021. Union Public Service Commission will be conducting the UPSC Enforcement Officer/ Accounts Officer 2021 in various centers across the country/state and the Syllabus is out now. UPSC Enforcement Officer/ Accounts Officer Syllabus 2021 is available for download.  UPSC Enforcement Officer/ Accounts Officer Syllabus contains details of the questions which will be asked in the examination and the details of the time given to answer the questions in the examination. The important dates related to UPSC Enforcement Officer/ Accounts Officer 2021 and further details related to the syllabus and the recruitment process for 2021 is provided in the following table.

Check and Download – UPSC Syllabus 2021

What are the details about UPSC Enforcement Officer/ Accounts Officer Syllabus 2021?

UPSC Enforcement Officer/ Accounts Officer Syllabus 2021
Company NameUnion Public Service Commission
Post NameEnforcement Officer/ Accounts Officer
CategorySyllabus
Official PDF LinkUPSC Syllabus 2021
Official Websiteupsc.gov.in

UPSC Enforcement Officer/ Accounts Officer Syllabus 2021 is released by the Union Public Service Commission. Candidates can check the UPSC Syllabus 2021 for the Enforcement Officer/ Accounts Officer post which was officially released by the UPSC. Candidates who are eagerly waiting to download the Syllabus PDF for the UPSC Enforcement Officer/ Accounts Officer 2021 can download the Syllabus from the official link which has been provided below.

Download the 2021 UPSC Syllabus

What is the exam pattern for UPSC Enforcement Officer/ Accounts Officer Syllabus 2021?

It is always important to know about the exam pattern for any exam. The Exam Pattern will help the candidates to know about how the questions are asked, no. of marks each question consists, etc. the given below is about the UPSC Enforcement Officer/ Accounts Officer Exam Pattern 2021  for mentioned posts. The candidates can refer the same for the UPSC Enforcement Officer/ Accounts Officer Exam Pattern 2021. 

UPSC Exam Pattern 2021

Phase NamesExam NamesMarks
Phase IWritten Test (PPT)100
Phase IIInterview100
Total200 Marks

What is UPSC Enforcement Officer/ Accounts Officer Syllabus 2021?

It is always important to know about the Syllabus for the UPSC 2021 exam. The Exam Syllabus will help the candidates to know about what are the chapters covered. The given below is about the UPSC Enforcement Officer/ Accounts Officer Syllabus 2021 for mentioned posts The candidates can refer to the same – below. 

General English

  • Vocabulary Usage
  • Grammar Usage
  • Comprehension
  • Synonyms
  • Antonyms

Indian Freedom Struggle

  • Revolt of 1857 – First War of Independence Against British Causes of the Rise of Indian
  • National Movement
  • Indian Nationalism – The Moderate Phase
  • Morley-Minto Reforms
  • Partition of Bengal 1905
  • Swaraj Party
  • First Round Table Conference 1930
  • Poona Pact
  • Quit India Movement
  • Indian National Movement – Extremist Period
  • Important Indian Freedom Fighter
  • Revolutionaries in the Indian Freedom Movement
  • The Rise of Gandhi in the Indian Freedom Struggle
  • The Rowlatt Act and the Jallianwala Bagh Massacre
  • The Lucknow Pact, 1916
  • Non-Cooperation Movement
  • Home Rule Movement
  • Salt Satyagraha
  • Moplah Rebellion of 1921
  • Simon Commission
  • Indian National Congress Sessions
  • Indian Independence Act of 1947

Current Events and Developmental Issues

  • Current Affairs (National & International)
  • Sports
  • State Animals and Symbols
  • Name of the Scientist who got Noble prize for important discoveries
  • Important Days
  • Awards and their importance
  • Politics
  • Finance and Banking sector
  • Population Census
  • Important Books and their writers
  • Important Inventions and their inventor

Indian Polity & Economy

  • Fundamental Duties
  • Governor and his functions
  • State legislature
  • Major Constitutional amendments and their importance
  • Official Language
  • Emergency Provisions
  • Supreme Court; Meaning of Write
  • Election of President and his functions
  • Important constitution bodies like CAG
  • Facts about parliament
  • National political parties and their symbols

General Accounting Principles

  • Dual Aspect Concern
  • Cost Concept
  • Accounting Period Concept
  • Matching Concept
  • Consistency
  • Realization Concept
  • Separate Entity Concept
  • Going Concern Concept
  • Money Measurement Concept
  • Full Disclosure
  • Conservatism
  • Materiality

Industrial Relations & Labour Laws

  • Labour Laws Types
  • Areas implemented
  • sectors applicable
  • Overview of Labour Laws
  • Industrial relations code (IRC) Bill
  • Model of labor reforms

General Science & Knowledge of Computer Applications

  • Chemistry: Chemical Properties of Substance and their uses, Chemical Name of Important substances like Plaster of Paris, etc., Chemical Change and Physical Change, Properties of Gases, Surface Chemistry, Chemistry in Everyday life
  • Biology: Important and Interesting facts about human body parts, Nutrition in Animals and Plants, Diseases and their causes like Bacteria
  • Physics: S.I. units, Motion, Sound, Light, Wave, Energy, Electricity
  • Daily Science: Development of computers; Input and Output Devices; Memory; MS Office; Internet

General Mental Ability

  • Blood Relations
  • Directions
  • Syllogism
  • Seating Arrangement
  • Puzzle Test
  • Statement and Conclusion
  • Sequence of figures
  • Series
  • Statement and Inferences
  • Data sufficiency

Quantitative Aptitude

  • Simple Interest
  • Compound Interest
  • Profit and Loss
  • Time and Work
  • Time, Speed and Distance
  • Problems Based on Ages
  • Calendar and Clock
  • Probability
  • Permutations and Combinations
  • Algebra
  • HCF and LCM
  • Average
  • Mixtures and Alligation
  • Ratio and Proportion
  • Partnership
  • Percentage and its application

Social Security in India

  • Status of Social security in India
  • Social security schemes for the Unorganised Sector
  • Employees’ State Insurance Corporation (ESIC)
  • Atal Pension Yojna (APY)
  • Pradhan Mantri Jeevan Jyoti Bima Yojana (PMJJBY); Pradhan Mantri Suraksha Bima Yojana (PMSBY)
  • New Social Security Schemes launched covering social insurances like Pension
  • Health Insurance and Medical Benefit
  • Disability Benefit, Maternity Benefit
  • Gratuity
  • Employees’ Provident Fund Organization (EPFO)
  • Pradhan Mantri Kisan Samman Nidhi (PM-KISAN) Yojana
  • Pradhan Mantri Kisan Mandhan Yojana, etc

UPSC Enforcement Officer/ Accounts Officer Syllabus 2021 helps the candidates to prepare for their examination. Before writing the exam the candidates will have an idea about the questions. With the help of the Enforcement Officer/ Accounts Officer Syllabus, the candidates will be able to know the No. of exam papers, topics covered, no. of Marks, and duration of the examination.

UPSC Exam Pattern 2020

UPSC SubjectsQuestionsMarksDuration
Paper I: Intelligence & General Ability1252502 Hours
Paper-II: General Studies, Essay & Comprehension2003 Hours

UPSC Syllabus 2020 Subject Wise

General Ability

  • Indian and World Geography
  • General Science
  • Current Events of National and International Importance
  • General Mental Ability
  • Indian Polity and Economy
  • History of India

General Intelligence

  • Analogies
  • Ranking
  • Arithmetical Reasoning
  • Coding and Decoding
  • Relationship Concepts
  • Statement Conclusion etc
  • Arrangements
  • Problem Solving
  • Syllogisms
  • Spatial Orientation
  • Space Visualization
  • Analysis
  • Decision Making
  • Visual Memory
  • Arithmetic Number Series
  • Figural Classification

Essay and Comprehension

  • Essay Writing
  • Comprehension
  • Communications
  • Report Writing
  • Language Skills
  • Grammar
  • Vocabulary etc.
  • Precis Writing
  • Counter Argument

General Studies

  • Geography – India
  • About India
  • Eminent Personalities
  • Cultural Heritage
  • History – India
  • Current Events – National & International.
  • Environment
  • Economy
  • General Polity
  • General Science
  • Indian Constitution
  • Science & Technology etc.
  • Indian National Movement

UPSC Exam Pattern

UPSC SubjectsQuestionsMarksDuration
Paper I: Intelligence & General Ability1252502 Hours
Paper-II: General Studies, Essay & Comprehension2003 Hours

UPSC Syllabus 2020 Subject Wise

General Ability

  • Indian and World Geography
  • General Science
  • Current Events of National and International Importance
  • General Mental Ability
  • Indian Polity and Economy
  • History of India

General Intelligence

  • Analogies
  • Ranking
  • Arithmetical Reasoning
  • Coding and Decoding
  • Relationship Concepts
  • Statement Conclusion etc
  • Arrangements
  • Problem Solving
  • Syllogisms
  • Spatial Orientation
  • Space Visualization
  • Analysis
  • Decision Making
  • Visual Memory
  • Arithmetic Number Series
  • Figural Classification

Essay and Comprehension

  • Essay Writing
  • Comprehension
  • Communications
  • Report Writing
  • Language Skills
  • Grammar
  • Vocabulary etc.
  • Precis Writing
  • Counter Argument

General Studies

  • Geography – India
  • About India
  • Eminent Personalities
  • Cultural Heritage
  • History – India
  • Current Events – National & International.
  • Environment
  • Economy
  • General Polity
  • General Science
  • Indian Constitution
  • Science & Technology etc.
  • Indian National Movement

UPSC Syllabus 2020 For IAS


General Studies I
● Indian Heritage and Culture
● History and Geography of the World
● Society
General Studies II
● Governance
● Constitution
● Polity
● Social Justice
● International relations
General Studies III
● Technology
● Economic Development
● Bio-diversity
● Environment
● Security and Disaster Management
General Studies IV
● Ethics
● Integrity
● Aptitude
Optional Papers –

  1. Agriculture
  2. Civil Engineering
  3. Geology
  4. Mechanical Engineering
  5. Psychology
  6. Animal Husbandry and Veterinary Science
  7. Commerce and Accountancy
  8. History
  9. Medical Science
  10. Public Administration
  11. Anthropology
  12. Economics
  13. Law
  14. Philosophy
  15. Sociology
  16. Botany
  17. Electrical Engineering
  18. Management
  19. Physics
  20. Statistics
  21. Chemistry
  22. Geography
  23. Mathematics
  24. Political Science and International Relations
  25. Zoology
    Literature – (any one of the following languages)
  26. Assamese
  27. Bengali
  28. Bodo
  29. Dogri
  30. Gujarati
  31. Hindi
  32. Kannada
  33. Kashmiri
  34. Konkani
  35. Maithili
  36. Malayalam
  37. Manipuri
  38. Marathi
  39. Nepali
  40. Odia
  41. Punjabi
  42. Sanskrit
  43. Santhali
  44. Sindhi
  45. Tamil
  46. Telugu
  47. Urdu
  48. English

UPSC Syllabus 2020 For NDA

General Studies I
● Indian Heritage and Culture
● History and Geography of the World
● Society
General Studies II
● Governance
● Constitution
● Polity
● Social Justice
● International relations
General Studies III
● Technology
● Economic Development
● Bio-diversity
● Environment
● Security and Disaster Management
General Studies IV
● Ethics
● Integrity
● Aptitude
Optional Papers –

  1. Agriculture
  2. Civil Engineering
  3. Geology
  4. Mechanical Engineering
  5. Psychology
  6. Animal Husbandry and Veterinary Science
  7. Commerce and Accountancy
  8. History
  9. Medical Science
  10. Public Administration
  11. Anthropology
  12. Economics
  13. Law
  14. Philosophy
  15. Sociology
  16. Botany
  17. Electrical Engineering
  18. Management
  19. Physics
  20. Statistics
  21. Chemistry
  22. Geography
  23. Mathematics
  24. Political Science and International Relations
  25. Zoology
    Literature – (any one of the following languages)
  26. Assamese
  27. Bengali
  28. Bodo
  29. Dogri
  30. Gujarati
  31. Hindi
  32. Kannada
  33. Kashmiri
  34. Konkani
  35. Maithili
  36. Malayalam
  37. Manipuri
  38. Marathi
  39. Nepali
  40. Odia
  41. Punjabi
  42. Sanskrit
  43. Santhali
  44. Sindhi
  45. Tamil
  46. Telugu
  47. Urdu
  48. English

UPSC Syllabus for IES

UPSC Subject wise Syllabus
General English

● Essay Writing
● Understanding of English language and vocabulary
● Summary or Precis Writing
● Passages
General Studies
● General Knowledge
● Current Events or Affairs
● Indian Polity
● History of India
● Geography
Statistics I
(Objective Type)
● Probability
● Classical & Axiomatic Definition of Probability
● Law of total probability
● Conditional probability
● Bayes’ theorem and applications
● Discrete and continuous random variables
● Standard discrete & continuous probability distributions
● Modes of convergences
● Mathematical expectation and conditional expectation
● Inversion, uniqueness and continuity theorems
● Borel 0-1 law, Kolmogorov’s 0-1 law
● Tchebycheff’s and Kolmogorov’s inequalities
● Laws of large numbers & central limit theorems
● Statistical Methods
● Collection, compilation & presentation of data/charts/diagrams/histogram
● Frequency distribution
● Measures of location/dispersion/skewness/kurtosis
● Bivariate and multivariate data
● Association and contingency
● Curve fitting and orthogonal polynomials
● Bivariate normal distribution
● Regression-linear, polynomial
● Correlation coefficient
● Partial and multiple correlations
● Intraclass correlation
● Correlation ratio
● Standard errors & large sample test
● Sampling distributions of sample mean
● Non-parametric tests
● Order statistics
● Concept of Asymptotic relative efficiency
● Numerical Analysis
● Finite differences of different orders
● Concept of interpolation and extrapolation
● Inverse interpolation
● Numerical differentiation
● Summation of Series
● Numerical solutions of differential equations
● Computer application & Data Processing
● Basics of Computer
● Operations of a computer
● Different units of a computer system
● Output and peripheral devices
● Software, system and application software,
● Operating systems
● Low and High-level languages
● RAM, ROM, unit of computer memory
● Network – LAN, WAN, internet, intranet
● Basics of computer security
● Basics of Programming
Statistics II
(Objective Type)
● Linear Models
● Theory of linear estimation
● Gauss-Markov Linear Models
● Error & Estimation Space
● Normal Equations
● Estimation of error variance
● Estimation with correlated observations
● Variances and covariances
● One way and two-way classifications
● Analysis of variance
● Statistical Inference & Hypothesis Testing
● Characteristics of a good estimator
● Estimation methods
● Minimum variance unbiased estimators
● Minimum variance bound estimators
● Hypothesis testing
● Official Statistics
● National and International official statistical system
● National Statistical Organization
● National Statistical Commission
● Index Numbers
● Sector Wise Statistics
● National Accounts
● Population Census
● Socio-Economic Indicators
● Gender Awareness/Statistics
● Important Surveys and Censuses
Statistics- III
(Descriptive Type)
● Sampling Techniques
● Concept of population and sample
● Need for sampling
● Complete enumeration versus sampling
● Methodologies in sample surveys by NSSO
● Subjective or purposive sampling
● Probability sampling or random sampling
● Estimation of population mean
● Stratified random sampling
● Covariance and Variance Function
● Ratio, product and regression methods of estimation
● Systematic sampling
● Sampling with probability proportional to size
● Concept of multistage sampling and its application
● Econometrics
● Nature of econometrics
● General Linear Model (GLM) and its extensions
● Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) estimation and prediction
● Generalized Least Squares (GLS) estimation and prediction
● Heteroscedastic disturbances, pure and mixed estimation
● Autocorrelation, its consequences, and tests
● Theil BLUS procedure, estimation, and prediction
● Linear regression and stochastic regression
● Simultaneous linear equations model and its generalization
● Estimation in simultaneous equations model
● Applied Statistics
● Index Numbers
● Time Series Analysis
● Exploratory time Series analysis
● A detailed study of the stationary processes
● Discussion (without proof) of estimation of mean
● Spectral analysis of the weakly stationary process
Statistics-IV
(Descriptive Type)
(50% Questions from all subsections below & Candidates need to choose two subsections)
● Operations Research and Reliability
● Definition & Scope of Operations Research
● Transportation and assignment problems
● Decision-making in the face of competition
● Analytical structure of inventory problems
● Queuing models
● Sequencing and scheduling problems
● Branch and Bound method
● Replacement problems
● PERT and CPM – basic concepts
● Notions of aging
● Reliability estimation based on failure times
● Demography and Vital Statistics
● Sources of demographic data
● Complete life table and its main features
● UN model life tables
● Measurement of Fertility
● Measurement of Mortality
● Internal migration and its measurement
● Projection method including logistic curve fitting
● Survival Analysis & Clinical Trial
● Concept of time
● Life tables, failure rate, mean residual life
● Estimation of the survival function
● Two sample problem
● Semi-parametric regression for failure rate
● Competing risk model
● Data management
● Design of clinical trials
● Reporting and analysis
● Quality Control
● Statistical process and product control
● General theory and review of control charts
● Acceptance sampling plans for attributes inspection
● Multivariate Analysis
● Multivariate normal distribution and its properties
● Maximum likelihood estimators
● Wishart matrix
● Hotelling’s T2 and its sampling distribution
● Classification problem
● Principal components, dimension reduction
● Design and Analysis of Experiments
● Analysis of variance for one way and two-way classifications
● Need for the design of experiments
● The basic principle of experimental design
● Complete analysis and layout of a completely randomized design
● Missing plot technique
● Split Plot Design and Strip Plot Design
● Factorial experiments
● Analysis of covariance
● Analysis of non-orthogonal data
● Analysis of missing data
● Computing with C and R
● Basics of C
● Control Statements
● Functions
● Structure
● Files in C
● Statistics Methods and techniques in R

UPSC Syllabus for CDS

UPSC Exam Pattern 2020

SubjectsNo. of questions (MCQs)Maximum MarksDuration
General Knowledge120100120 minutes
English Language120100120 minutes
Elementary Mathematics100100120 minutes

UPSC Exam Syllabus 2020 – Subject-Wise

English – (Code 1)

  1. Unseen Passage
  2. Spotting Errors
  3. Sentence Rearrangement
  4. Idioms & Phrases
  5. Ordering of Sentences
  6. Fillers
  7. Synonyms & Antonyms
  8. Parts of Speech
  9. Spelling Mistakes
  10. Transformation of Sentences
  11. Reported Speech

General Knowledge- (Code 2)

  1. Current Events
  2. Matters Of Everyday Observation
  3. Knowledge Of Scientific Aspects, Indian History And Geography
  4. General Science
  5. Social Studies
  6. History
  7. Geography
  8. Current Events & Affairs

Elementary Mathematics – (Code 3)

  1. Arithmetic
  2. Number System
  3. Square roots
  4. Decimal fractions
  5. Unitary method
  6. Time and distance
  7. Time and work
  8. Percentage
  9. Simple and Compound interest
  10. Profit and loss
  11. Ratio and proportion
  12. Division algorithm
  13. Prime and composite numbers
  14. Tests of divisibility
  15. Multiples and factors
  16. H.C.F. and L.C.M
  17. Euclidean algorithm
  18. Logarithms to base 10, Laws of logarithms
  19. ALGEBRA
  20. Remainder Theorem
  21. H.C.F., L.C.M.
  22. Theory of polynomials
  23. Solutions of quadratic equations
  24. Relation between its roots and coefficients
  25. Linear equations
  26. Set language and set notation
  27. Rational expressions
  28. Laws of indices
  29. TRIGONOMETRY
  30. Sine ×
  31. cosine ×
  32. Tangent ×
  33. Values of sin ×, cos × and tan ×
  34. for × = 0°, 30°, 45°, 60° and 90°
  35. Use of trigonometric tables
  36. Simple cases of heights and distances
  37. GEOMETRY
  38. Lines and angles
  39. Plane and plane figures
  40. Theorems
  41. MENSURATION
  42. Squares
  43. Rectangles
  44. Parallelograms
  45. Triangle
  46. Circle
  47. Areas of figures
  48. Surface area and volume of cuboids
  49. Volume of right circular cones & cylinders
  50. Surface area and volume of spheres
  51. STATISTICS
  52. Collection & tabulation of statistical data
  53. Graphical representation

UPSC Exam Syllabus 2020 for IES ISS

UPSC Exam Pattern

Indian Economic Service (IES)
SubjectMarksTime Duration
General English1003 hours
General Studies1003 hours
General Economics-I2003 hours
General Economics-II2003 hours
General Economics-III2003 hours
Indian Economics2003 hours
Indian Statistical Service (ISS)
General English1003 hours
General Studies1003 hours
Statistics I2002 hours
Statistics II2002 hours
Statistics III2003 hours
Statistics IV2003 hours

UPSC Subject wise Syllabus

General English

  • Essay Writing
  • Understanding of English language and vocabulary
  • Summary or Precis Writing
  • Passages

General Studies

  • General Knowledge
  • Current Events or Affairs
  • Indian Polity
  • History of India
  • Geography

Statistics I

(Objective Type)

  • Probability
  • Classical & Axiomatic Definition of Probability
  • Law of total probability
  • Conditional probability
  • Bayes’ theorem and applications
  • Discrete and continuous random variables
  • Standard discrete & continuous probability distributions
  • Modes of convergences
  • Mathematical expectation and conditional expectation
  • Inversion, uniqueness and continuity theorems
  • Borel 0-1 law, Kolmogorov’s 0-1 law
  • Tchebycheff’s and Kolmogorov’s inequalities
  • Laws of large numbers & central limit theorems
  • Statistical Methods
  • Collection, compilation & presentation of data/charts/diagrams/histogram
  • Frequency distribution
  • Measures of location/dispersion/skewness/kurtosis
  • Bivariate and multivariate data
  • Association and contingency
  • Curve fitting and orthogonal polynomials
  • Bivariate normal distribution
  • Regression-linear, polynomial
  • Correlation coefficient
  • Partial and multiple correlations
  • Intraclass correlation
  • Correlation ratio
  • Standard errors & large sample test
  • Sampling distributions of sample mean
  • Non-parametric tests
  • Order statistics
  • Concept of Asymptotic relative efficiency
  • Numerical Analysis
  • Finite differences of different orders
  • Concept of interpolation and extrapolation
  • Inverse interpolation
  • Numerical differentiation
  • Summation of Series
  • Numerical solutions of differential equations
  • Computer application & Data Processing
  • Basics of Computer
  • Operations of a computer
  • Different units of a computer system
  • Output and peripheral devices
  • Software, system and application software,
  • Operating systems
  • Low and High-level languages
  • RAM, ROM, unit of computer memory
  • Network – LAN, WAN, internet, intranet
  • Basics of computer security
  • Basics of Programming

Statistics II

(Objective Type)

  • Linear Models
  • Theory of linear estimation
  • Gauss-Markov Linear Models
  • Error & Estimation Space
  • Normal Equations
  • Estimation of error variance
  • Estimation with correlated observations
  • Variances and covariances
  • One way and two-way classifications
  • Analysis of variance
  • Statistical Inference & Hypothesis Testing
  • Characteristics of a good estimator
  • Estimation methods
  • Minimum variance unbIES ISSed estimators
  • Minimum variance bound estimators
  • Hypothesis testing
  • Official Statistics
  • National and International official statistical system
  • National Statistical Organization
  • National Statistical Commission
  • Index Numbers
  • Sector Wise Statistics
  • National Accounts
  • Population Census
  • Socio-Economic Indicators
  • Gender Awareness/Statistics
  • Important Surveys and Censuses

Statistics- III

(Descriptive Type)

  • Sampling Techniques
  • Concept of population and sample
  • Need for sampling
  • Complete enumeration versus sampling
  • Methodologies in sample surveys by NSSO
  • Subjective or purposive sampling
  • Probability sampling or random sampling
  • Estimation of population mean
  • Stratified random sampling
  • Covariance and Variance Function
  • Ratio, product and regression methods of estimation
  • Systematic sampling
  • Sampling with probability proportional to size
  • Concept of multistage sampling and its application
  • Econometrics
  • Nature of econometrics
  • General Linear Model (GLM) and its extensions
  • Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) estimation and prediction
  • Generalized Least Squares (GLS) estimation and prediction
  • Heteroscedastic disturbances, pure and mixed estimation
  • Autocorrelation, its consequences, and tests
  • Theil BLUS procedure, estimation, and prediction
  • Linear regression and stochastic regression
  • Simultaneous linear equations model and its generalization
  • Estimation in simultaneous equations model
  • Applied Statistics
  • Index Numbers
  • Time Series Analysis
  • Exploratory time Series analysis
  • A detailed study of the stationary processes
  • Discussion (without proof) of estimation of mean
  • Spectral analysis of the weakly stationary process

Statistics-IV

(Descriptive Type)

(50% Questions from all subsections below & Candidates need to choose two subsections)

  • Operations Research and Reliability
  • Definition & Scope of Operations Research
  • Transportation and assignment problems
  • Decision-making in the face of competition
  • Analytical structure of inventory problems
  • Queuing models
  • Sequencing and scheduling problems
  • Branch and Bound method
  • Replacement problems
  • PERT and CPM – basic concepts
  • Notions of aging
  • Reliability estimation based on failure times
  • Demography and Vital Statistics
  • Sources of demographic data
  • Complete life table and its main features
  • UN model life tables
  • Measurement of Fertility
  • Measurement of Mortality
  • Internal migration and its measurement
  • Projection method including logistic curve fitting
  • Survival Analysis & Clinical Trial
  • Concept of time
  • Life tables, failure rate, mean residual life
  • Estimation of the survival function
  • Two sample problem
  • Semi-parametric regression for failure rate
  • Competing risk model
  • Data management
  • Design of clinical trials
  • Reporting and analysis
  • Quality Control
  • Statistical process and product control
  • General theory and review of control charts
  • Acceptance sampling plans for attributes inspection
  • Multivariate Analysis
  • Multivariate normal distribution and its properties
  • Maximum likelihood estimators
  • Wishart matrix
  • Hotelling’s T2 and its sampling distribution
  • Classification problem
  • Principal components, dimension reduction
  • Design and Analysis of Experiments
  • Analysis of variance for one way and two-way classifications
  • Need for the design of experiments
  • The basic principle of experimental design
  • Complete analysis and layout of a completely randomized design
  • Missing plot technique
  • Split Plot Design and Strip Plot Design
  • Factorial experiments
  • Analysis of covariance
  • Analysis of non-orthogonal data
  • Analysis of missing data
  • Computing with C and R
  • Basics of C
  • Control Statements
  • Functions
  • Structure
  • Files in C
  • Statistics Methods and techniques in R

UPSC Syllabus 2020

UPSC Syllabus 2020: Union Public Service Commission has released the UPSC Syllabus 2020 for Combined Geo-Scientist Examination on its official website upsc.gov.in Here candidates can get updates, admit cards, and other important details regarding UPSC Syllabus. Grab, all the latest updates like the session, syllabus, exam date, interview schedule, and other details here and download the UPSC Syllabus 2020  through the direct official link provided below. More updates on UPSC Syllabus will also be available on our website.

UPSC Syllabus 2020 released for Combined Geo-Scientist Examination

UPSC Syllabus 2020  for Combined Geo-Scientist Examination has been released by the Union Public Service Commission on its official website upsc.gov.in  The candidates who have applied for the exam can now get their Combined Geo-Scientist Examination Syllabus for the exam from here. Get, all the latest updates like the session, syllabus, exam date, interview schedule, and other details here and download the UPSC Syllabus 2020 for the Combined Geo-Scientist Examination exam through the direct official link provided below. Updated Notification for the further process will also be provided here instantly. The syllabus and exam Syllabus for the Combined Geo-Scientist Examination is given in the below as PDF.

Download: UPSC Syllabus 2020

UPSC Syllabus 2020

UPSC Syllabus 2020: Union Public Service Commission has released the UPSC Syllabus 2020 for NDA (National Defence Academy) on its official website upsc.gov.in Here candidates can get updates, admit cards, and other important details regarding UPSC Syllabus. Grab, all the latest updates like the session, syllabus, exam date, interview schedule, and other details here and download the UPSC Syllabus 2020  through the direct official link provided below. More updates on UPSC Syllabus 2020 will also be available on our website.

UPSC Syllabus 2020  for the post of NDA, IES (Indian Economic Service) and ISSE (Indian Statistical Service Examination) has released by the Union Public Service Commission on its official website upsc.gov.in  The candidates who have applied for the exam can now get their Syllabus for the exam from here. Get, all the latest updates like the session, syllabus, exam date, interview schedule, and other details here and download the UPSC Syllabus 2020 for the post of NDA through the direct official link provided below. Updated Notification for the further process will also be provided here instantly. The syllabus and exam pattern for the NDA is given in the below PDF.

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NDA Syllabus

The Candidates can check the below details of NDA Syllabus 2020

NDA Syllabus 2020 for Mathematics

AlgebraMatrices and Determinants
TrigonometryAnalytical Geometry of Two and Three Dimensions 
Differential CalculusIntegral Calculus and Differential Equations
Vector AlgebraStatistics and Probability

Distribution of questions in Maths

TopicQuestions
Calculus20-25
Quadratic equation20-15
Matrices & Determinants 30
Probability10
Trigonometry30
Complex number 10-15

NDA Syllabus for GAT

Physics
Physical Properties and States of MatterModes of transference of Heat
MassSound waves and their properties
WeightSimple musical instruments
VolumeRectilinear propagation of Light
Density and Specific GravityReflection and refraction
Principle of ArchimedesSpherical mirrors and Lenses
Pressure BarometerHuman Eye
Motion of objectsNatural and Artificial Magnets
Velocity and AccelerationProperties of a Magnet
Newton’s Laws of MotionEarth as a Magnet
Force and MomentumStatic and Current Electricity
Parallelogram of ForcesConductors and Non-conductors
Stability and Equilibrium of bodiesOhm’s Law
GravitationSimple Electrical Circuits
Elementary ideas of workHeating, Lighting and Magnetic effects of Current
Power and EnergyMeasurement of Electrical Power
Effects of HeatPrimary and Secondary Cells
Measurement of Temperature and HeatUse of X-Rays
General Principles in the working of the following: Simple PendulumSimple PulleysSiphonLeversBalloonPumpsHydrometerPressure CookerThermos FlaskGramophoneTelegraphsTelephonePeriscopeTelescopeMicroscopeMariner’s CompassLightning ConductorsSafety Fuses
Chemistry
Preparation and Properties of Hydrogen, Oxygen, Nitrogen and Carbon Dioxide, Oxidation, and Reduction. Acids, bases, and salts. Carbon— different formsPhysical and Chemical Changes
Fertilizers—Natural and ArtificialElements
The material used in the preparation of substances like Soap, Glass, Ink, Paper, Cement, Paints, Safety Matches and GunpowderMixtures and Compounds
Elementary ideas about the structure of AtomSymbols, Formulae and simple Chemical Equation
Atomic Equivalent and Molecular WeightsLaw of Chemical Combination (excluding problems)
ValencyProperties of Air and Water
General Science
Common Epidemics, their causes, and preventionDifference between the living and non-living
Food—Source of Energy for manBasis of Life—Cells, Protoplasms, and Tissues
Constituents of foodGrowth and Reproduction in Plants and Animals
Balanced DietElementary knowledge of Human Body and its important organs
The Solar System—Meteors and Comets, Eclipses. Achievements of Eminent Scientists 
History
Forces shaping the modern world; RenaissanceA broad survey of Indian History, with emphasis on Culture and Civilisation
Exploration and Discovery; War of American Independence, French Revolution, Industrial Revolution and Russian RevolutionFreedom Movement in India
Impact of Science and Technology on SocietyElementary study of Indian Constitution and Administration
Concept of one WorldElementary knowledge of Five Year Plans of India
United Nations, Panchsheel, Democracy, Socialism and CommunismPanchayati Raj
Role of India in the present worldCo-operatives and Community Development
A broad survey of Indian History, with emphasis on Culture and CivilisationBhoodan, Sarvodaya, National Integration and Welfare State
Basic Teachings of Mahatma Gandhi 
Geography
The Earth, its shape and sizeOcean Currents and Tides Atmosphere and its composition
Latitudes and LongitudesTemperature and Atmospheric Pressure, Planetary Winds, Cyclones, and Anticyclones; Humidity; Condensation and Precipitation
Concept of timeTypes of Climate
International Date LineMajor Natural Regions of the World
Movements of Earth and their effectsRegional Geography of India—Climate, Natural vegetation. Mineral and Power resources; location and distribution of agricultural and Industrial activities
Origin of Earth. Rocks and their classificationImportant Sea ports and main sea, land, and air routes of India
Weathering—Mechanical and Chemical, Earthquakes and VolcanoesMain items of Imports and Exports of India
Current Affairs
Knowledge of Important events that have happened in India in the recent yearsProminent personalities—both Indian and International including those connected with cultural activities and sports
Current important world events

Syllabus for IES (Indian Economic Service) and ISSE (Indian Statistical Service Examination)

General English

Applicants will be required to write an essay in English. Their understanding of English and working words will also be tested on other questions. Usually, the passages are set to summarize or accurate.

General Studies

  • General knowledge, including knowledge of current events and such everyday issues
  • Observation and experience in their scientific aspects, as may be expected of an educated person
  • No special study of any scientific subject has been made. Questions on the paper will also include Indian Polity, including the Indian Political System and Constitution, Indian History and Geography of a nature that a candidate should be able to respond to without a specific study

 General Economics – I

  1. Theory of Consumer’s Demand 
  • Cardinal utility Analysis: Marginal utility and demand, Consumer’s surplus, Indifference curve, Analysis, and utility function, 
  • Price income and substitution effects, 
  • Slutsky theorem and derivation of the demand curve, Revealed preference theory. 
  • Duality and Simple games of complete information, Concepts of Nash equilibrium.
  1. Theory of Production
  • Factors of production and production function
  • Forms of Production Functions: Cobb Douglas, CES and Fixed coefficient type, Translog production function
  • Laws of return, Returns to scale and Return to factors of production
  • Duality and cost function, Measures of productive efficiency of firms, technical and allocative efficiency
  • Partial Equilibrium versus General Equilibrium approach, Equilibrium of the film and industry
  1. Theory of Value
  • Pricing under different market structures, public sector pricing, marginal cost pricing, peak-load pricing, cross-subsidy free pricing, and average cost pricing
  • Marshallian and Walrasian stability analysis
  • Pricing with incomplete information and moral hazard problems
  1. Theory of Distribution
  • Neoclassical distribution theories; Marginal productivity theory of the determination of factor prices, Factor shares and adding up problems
  • Euler’s theorem, Pricing of factors under imperfect competition, monopoly and bilateral monopoly
  • Macro-distribution theories of Ricardo, Marx, Kaldor, Kalecki
  1. Welfare Economics
  • Inter-personal comparison and aggression problem, Public goods and externalities, Divergence between social and private welfare, compensation principle
  • Pareto optimality. Social choice and other recent schools, including Coase and Sen

Part -B: Quantitative Methods in Economics

  1. Mathematical Methods in Economics
  • Differentiation and Integration and their application in economics
  • Optimisation techniques, Sets, Matrices and their application in economics
  • Linear algebra and Linear programming in economics and Input-output model of Leontief
  1. Statistical and Econometric Methods: 
  • Measures of central tendency and dispersions, Correlation and Regression. 
  • Time series. Index numbers, Sampling of curves based on a various linear and non-linear function
  • Least square methods and other multivariate analysis, Principle component analysis, Discriminant analysis
  • Income distribution: Pareto law of Distribution, long normal distribution, measurement of income inequality
  • Lorenz curve and Gini coefficient
  • Univariate and multivariate regression analysis
  • Problems and remedies of Heteroscedasticity, Autocorrelation, and Multicollinearity.

General Economics – II

  1. Economic Thought
  • Mercantilism Physiocrats, Classical, Marxist, Neo-classical, Keynesian and Monetarist schools of thought.
  1. Concept of National Income and Social Accounting
  • Measurement of National Income, Inter relationship between three measures of national income in the presence of Government sector and International transactions
  • Environmental considerations, Green national income
  1. Theory of employment, Output, Inflation, Money and Finance
  • The Classical Theory of Employment and Output and Neo classical approaches
  • Equilibrium, analysis under classical and neoclassical analysis
  • Keynesian theory of Employment and output
  • Post Keynesian developments
  • The inflationary gap; Demand pull versus cost-push inflation, Philip’s curve and its policy implication
  • Classical theory of Money, the Quantity Theory of Money
  • Friedman’s restatement of the quantity theory, the neutrality of money
  • The supply and demand for loanable funds and equilibrium in financial markets, Keynes’ theory on demand for money
  • IS-LM Model and AD-AS Model in Keynesian Theory
  1. Financial and Capital Market
  • Finance and economic development, financial markets, stock market, gift market, banking, and insurance
  • Equity markets, Role of primary and secondary markets and efficiency, Derivatives markets; Future and options
  1. Economic Growth and Development: Concepts of Economic Growth and Development and their measurement
  • characteristics of less developed countries and obstacles to their development – growth, poverty and income distribution
  • Theories of growth: Classical Approach: Adam Smith, Marx, and Schumpeter- Neo classical approach; Robinson, Solow, Kaldor and Harrod Domar
  • Theories of Economic Development, Rostow, Rosenstein-Roden, Nurske, Hirschman, Leibenstien and Arthur Lewis, Amin, and Frank (Dependency school) respective role of the state and the market
  • Utilitarian and Welfarist approach to social development and A.K. Sen’s critique. Sen’s capability approach to economic development
  • The Human Development Index
  • Physical quality of Life Index and the Human Poverty Index
  • Basics of Endogenous Growth Theory
  1. International Economics
  • Gains from International Trade, Terms of Trade, policy, international trade and economic development- Theories of International Trade; Ricardo, Haberler, Heckscher- Ohlin, and Stopler- Samuelson- Theory of Tariffs- Regional Trade Arrangements
  • Asian Financial Crisis of 1997, Global Financial Crisis of 2008 and the Euro Zone Crisis- Causes and Impact
  1. Balance of Payments
  • Disequilibrium in Balance of Payments, Mechanism of Adjustments, Foreign Trade Multiplier, Exchange Rates, Import, and Exchange Controls and Multiple Exchange Rates
  • IS-LM Model and Mundell- Fleming Model of Balance of Payments
  1. Global Institutions

General Economic – III
 

  1. Public Finance
  • Theories of taxation: Optimal taxes and tax reforms, the incidence of taxation
  • Theories of public expenditure: objectives and effects of public expenditure, public expenditure policy and social cost-benefit analysis, criteria of public investment decisions, social rate of discount, shadow prices of investment, unskilled labor and foreign exchange
  • Budgetary deficits. Theory of public debt management
  1. Environmental Economics
  • Environmentally sustainable development, Rio process 1992 to 2012, Green GDP, UN Methodology of Integrated Environmental and Economic accounting
  • Environmental Values: Users and non-users values, the option value
  • Valuation Methods: Stated and revealed preference methods
  • Design of Environmental Policy Instruments: Pollution taxes and pollution permits, collective action and informal regulation by local communities 
  • Theories of exhaustible and renewable resources
  • International environmental agreements, RIO Conventions. Climatic change problems
  • Kyoto Protocol, UNFCC, Bali Action Plan, Agreements up to 2017, tradable permits and carbon taxes
  • Carbon Markets and Market Mechanisms
  • Climate Change Finance and Green Climate Fund
  1. Industrial Economics
  • Market structure, conduct and performance of firms, product differentiation and market concentration, monopolistic price theory and oligopolistic interdependence and pricing, entry preventing pricing, micro level investment decisions and the behavior of firms, research, and development and innovation, market structure and profitability, public policy and development of firms
  1.  State, Market, and Planning
  • Planning in a developing economy. 
  • Planning regulation and market
  • Indicative planning
  • Decentralized planning

INDIAN ECONOMICS

  1. History of development and planning
  • Alternative development strategies—the goal of self-reliance based on import substitution and protection, the post-1991 globalization strategies based on stabilization and structural adjustment packages: fiscal reforms, financial sector reforms, and trade reforms
  1. Federal Finance
  • Constitutional provisions relating to fiscal and financial powers of the States, Finance Commissions, and their formulae for sharing taxes, Financial aspects of Sarkaria Commission Report, financial aspects of 73rd and 74th Constitutional Amendments
  1. Budgeting and Fiscal Policy
  • Tax, expenditure, budgetary deficits, pension, and fiscal reforms, Public debt management and reforms, Fiscal Responsibility and Budget Management (FRBM) Act, Black Money, and Parallel economy in India—definition, estimates, genesis, consequences, and remedies.
  1. Poverty, Unemployment and Human Development
  • Estimates of inequality and poverty measures for India, appraisal of Government measures, India’s human development record in a global perspective
  • India’s population policy and development
  1. Agriculture and Rural Development Strategies
  • Technologies and institutions, land relations and land reforms, rural credit, modern farm inputs, and marketing— price policy and subsidies; commercialization and diversification
  • Rural development programs including poverty alleviation programs, development of economic and social infrastructure, and New Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme
  1. India’s experience with Urbanisation and Migration
  • Different types of migratory flows and their impact on the economies of their origin and destination, the process of growth of urban settlements; urban development strategies
  1. Industry 
  • The strategy of industrial development
  • Industrial Policy Reform; Reservation Policy relating to small scale industries
  • Competition policy, Sources of industrial finances
  • Bank, share market, insurance companies, pension funds, non-banking sources and foreign direct investment, the role of foreign capital for direct investment and portfolio investment, Public sector reform, privatization, and disinvestment.
  1. Labour
  • Employment, unemployment and underemployment, industrial relations and labor welfare
  • Strategies for employment generation
  • Urban labor market and informal sector employment, Report of National Commission on Labour, Social issues relating to labor

e.g. Child Labour, Bonded Labour International Labour Standard, and its impact.

  1. Foreign trade
  • Salient features of India’s foreign trade, composition, direction and organization of trade, recent changes in trade, the balance of payments, tariff policy, exchange rate, India and WTO requirements
  • Bilateral Trade Agreements and their implications
  1. Money and Banking
  • Financial sector reforms, Organisation of India’s money market, changing roles of the Reserve Bank of India, commercial banks, development finance institutions, foreign banks, and non-banking financial institutions
  • Indian capital market and SEBI, Development in Global Financial Market, and its relationship with the Indian Financial Sector. Commodity Market in India-Spot and Futures Market, Role of FMC
  1. Inflation
  • Definition, trends, estimates, consequences, and remedies (control): Wholesale Price Index. 
  • Consumer Price Index: components and trends

STATISTICS – I (OBJECTIVE TYPE)

  1. Probability:
  • Classical and axiomatic definitions of Probability and consequences
  • Law of total probability, Conditional probability, Bayes’ theorem, and applications
  • Discrete and continuous random variables
  • Distribution functions and their properties
  • Standard discrete and continuous probability distributions – Bernoulli, Uniform, Binomial, Poisson, Geometric, Rectangular, Exponential, Normal, Cauchy, Hypergeometric, Multinomial, Laplace, Negative binomial, Beta, Gamma, Lognormal
  • Random vectors, Joint and marginal distributions, conditional distributions, Distributions of functions of random variables. Modes of convergences of sequences of random variables – in distribution, in probability, with probability one and in mean square
  • Mathematical expectation and conditional expectation. Characteristic function, moment and probability generating functions, Inversion, uniqueness and continuity theorems
  • Borel 0-1 law, Kolmogorov’s 0-1 law. Tchebycheff’s and Kolmogorov’s inequalities. Laws of large numbers and central limit theorems for independent variables
  1. Statistical Methods
  • Collection, compilation, and presentation of data, charts, diagrams, and histogram
  • Frequency distribution. Measures of location, dispersion, skewness, and kurtosis
  • Bivariate and multivariate data. Association and contingency
  • Curve fitting and orthogonal polynomials. Bivariate normal distribution
  • Regression-linear, polynomial. Distribution of the correlation coefficient, Partial and multiple correlations, Intraclass correlation, Correlation ratio
  • Standard errors and large sample test
  • Sampling distributions of sample mean, sample variance, t, chi-square, and F; tests of significance based on them, Small sample tests
  • Non-parametric tests-Goodness of fit, sign, median, run, Wilcoxon, Mann-Whitney, Wald- Wolfowitz, and Kolmogorov-Smirnov
  • Order statistics-minimum, maximum, range, and median. Concept of Asymptotic relative efficiency
  1. Numerical Analysis:
  • Finite differences of different orders: E and D operators, factorial representation of a polynomial, separation of symbols, sub-division of intervals, differences of zero
  • Concept of interpolation and extrapolation: Newton Gregory’s forward and backward interpolation formulae for equal intervals, divided differences and their properties, Newton’s formula for divided difference, Lagrange’s formula for unequal intervals, central difference formula due to Gauss, Sterling and Bessel, the concept of error terms in interpolation formula.
  • Inverse interpolation: Different methods of inverse interpolation.
  • Numerical differentiation: Trapezoidal, Simpson’s one-third, and three-eight rule and Waddles rule
  • Summation of Series: 

Whose general term 

(i) is the first difference of a function 

(ii) is in geometric progression.

  • Numerical solutions of differential equations: Euler’s Method, Milne’s Method, Picard’s Method, and Runge-Kutta Method
  1. Computer application and Data Processing:

Basics of Computer: 

  • Operations of a computer, Different units of a computer system like central processing unit, memory unit, arithmetic and logical unit, an input unit, output unit, etc., Hardware including different types of input, output and peripheral devices, Software, system and application software, number systems, Operating systems, packages and utilities, Low and High-level languages, Compiler, Assembler, Memory – RAM, ROM, unit of computer memory (bits, bytes, etc.), Network – LAN, WAN, internet, intranet, basics of computer security, virus, antivirus, firewall, spyware, malware, etc.

Basics of Programming

  •  The algorithm, Flowchart, Data, Information, Database, an overview of different programming languages, frontend and backend of a project, variables, control structures, arrays, and their usages, functions, modules, loops, conditional statements, exceptions, debugging and related concepts.

Statistic -II (Objective Type)

Linear Models

  • Theory of linear estimation, Gauss-Markov linear models, estimable functions, error and estimation space, normal equations and least square estimators, estimation of error 14 variances, estimation with correlated observations, properties of least square estimators, the generalized inverse of a matrix and solution of normal equations, variances and covariances of least square estimators
  • One way and two-way classifications, fixed, random and mixed-effects models
  • Analysis of variance (two-way classification only), multiple comparison tests due to Tukey, Scheffe, and Student-Newmann-Keul-Duncan

Statistical Inference and Hypothesis Testing: 

  • Characteristics of good estimator
  • Estimation methods of maximum likelihood, minimum chi-square, moments and least squares
  • Optimal properties of maximum likelihood estimators
  • Minimum variance unbiased estimators
  • Minimum variance bound estimators
  • Cramer-Rao inequality. Bhattacharya bounds
  • Sufficient estimator
  • factorization theorem
  • Complete statistics
  • Rao-Blackwell theorem
  • Confidence interval estimation
  • Optimum confidence bounds
  • Resampling, Bootstrap and Jacknife

Hypothesis testing

  • Simple and composite hypotheses
  • Two kinds of error
  • Critical region
  • Different types of critical regions and similar regions
  • Power function
  • Most powerful and uniformly most powerful tests
  • Neyman-Pearson fundamental lemma
  • Unbiased test
  • Randomized test
  • Likelihood ratio test
  • Wald’s SPRT, OC and ASN functions. Elements of decision theory
  1. Official Statistics
  •  National and International official statistical system Official Statistics

(a) Need, Uses, Users, Reliability, Relevance, Limitations, Transparency, its visibility 

(b) The compilation, Collection, Processing, Analysis and Dissemination, Agencies Involved, Methods 

  1. National Statistical Organization
  •  Vision and Mission, NSSO and CSO; roles and responsibilities; Important activities, Publications, etc. 
  1. National Statistical Commission
  • Need, Constitution, its role, functions, etc; Legal Acts/ Provisions/ Support for Official Statistics; Important Acts Index Numbers: Different Types, Need, Data Collection Mechanism, Periodicity, Agencies Involved, Uses Sector Wise Statistics: Agriculture, Health, Education, Women, and Child, etc.
  • Important Surveys & Census, Indicators, Agencies and Usages etc
  1. National Accounts: Definition, Basic Concepts; issues; the Strategy, Collection of Data, and Release. 
  2. Population Census: Need, Data Collected, Periodicity, Methods of data collection, dissemination, Agencies involved
  3. Misc: Socio-Economic Indicators, Gender Awareness/Statistics, Important Surveys, and Censuses

STATISTICS- III (DESCRIPTIVE TYPE) 

i) Sampling Techniques

  • Concept of population and sample, need for sampling, complete enumeration versus sampling, basic concepts in sampling, sampling and Non-sampling error, Methodologies in sample surveys (questionnaires, sampling design and methods followed in field investigation) by NSSO. Subjective or purposive sampling, probability sampling or random sampling, simple random sampling with and without replacement, estimation of population mean, population proportions and their standard errors. Stratified random sampling, proportional and optimum allocation, comparison with simple random sampling for fixed sample size. Covariance and Variance Function. Ratio, product and regression methods of estimation, estimation of population mean, evaluation of Bias and Variance to the first order of approximation, comparison with simple random sampling. Systematic sampling (when population size (N) is an integer multiple of sampling size (n)). Estimation of population mean and standard error of this estimate, comparison with simple random sampling. Sampling with probability proportional to size (with and without replacement method), Des Raj and Das estimators for n=2, Horvitz-Thomson’s estimator Equal size cluster sampling: estimators of population mean and total and their standard errors, comparison of cluster sampling with SRS in terms of intra-class correlation coefficient. Concept of multistage sampling and its application, two-stage sampling with equal number of second stage units, estimation of population mean and total.Double sampling in ratio and regression methods of estimation. Concept of Interpenetrating sub-sampling. 

ii) Econometrics

  • Nature of econometrics, the general linear model (GLM) and its extensions, ordinary least squares (OLS) estimation and prediction, generalized least squares (GLS) estimation and prediction, heteroscedastic disturbances, pure and mixed estimation. Auto correlation, its consequences and tests. Theil BLUS procedure, estimation and prediction, multi-collinearity problem, its implications and tools for handling the problem, ridge regression. Linear regression and stochastic regression, instrumental variable estimation, errors in variables, autoregressive linear regression, lagged variables, distributed lag models, estimation of lags by OLS method, Koyck’s geometric lag model. Simultaneous linear equations model and its generalization, identification problem, restrictions on structural parameters, rank and order conditions. Estimation in simultaneous equations model, recursive systems, 2 SLS estimators, limited information estimators, k-class estimators, 3 SLS estimator, full information maximum likelihood method, prediction and simultaneous confidence intervals. 

III) Applied Statistics

Index Numbers: Price relatives and quantity or volume relatives, Link and chain relatives composition of index numbers; Laspeyre’s, Paasche’s’, Marshal Edgeworth and Fisher index numbers; chain base index number, tests for index number, Construction of index numbers of wholesale and consumer prices, Income distribution-Pareto and Engel curves, Concentration curve, Methods of estimating national income, Inter-sectoral flows, Interindustry table, Role of CSO. Demand Analysis Time Series Analysis: Economic time series, different components, illustration, additive and multiplicative models, determination of trend, seasonal and cyclical fluctuations. Time-series as discrete parameter stochastic process, autocovariance and autocorrelation functions and their properties. Exploratory time Series analysis, tests for trend and seasonality, exponential and moving average smoothing. Holt and Winters smoothing, forecasting based on smoothing. Detailed study of the stationary processes: (1) moving average (MA), (2) autoregressive (AR), (3) ARMA and (4) AR integrated MA (ARIMA) models. Box-Jenkins models, choice of AR and MA periods. Discussion (without proof) of estimation of mean, autocovariance and autocorrelation functions under large sample theory, estimation of ARIMA model parameters. Spectral analysis of weakly stationary process, periodogram and correlogram analyses, computations based on Fourier transform. 

 STATISTICS-IV (DESCRIPTIVE TYPE)

 (Equal number of questions i.e. 50% weightage from all the subsections below and candidates have to choose any two subsections and answer)

 (i) Operations Research and Reliability: 

  • Definition and Scope of Operations Research: phases in Operation Research, models and their solutions, decision-making under uncertainty and risk, use of different criteria, sensitivity analysis. Transportation and assignment problems. Bellman’s principle of optimality, general formulation, computational methods and application of dynamic programming to LPP. Decision-making in the face of competition, two-person games, pure and mixed strategies, existence of solution and uniqueness of value in zero-sum games, finding solutions in 2×2, 2xm and mxn games. Analytical structure of inventory problems, EOQ formula of Harris, its sensitivity analysis and extensions allowing quantity discounts and shortages. Multi-item inventory subject to constraints. Models with random demand, the static risk model. P and Q- systems with constant and random lead times. Queuing models – specification and effectiveness measures. Steady-state solutions of M/M/1 and M/M/c models with associated distributions of queue-length and waiting time. M/G/1 queue and Pollazcek-Khinchine result. Sequencing and scheduling problems. 2-machine n-job and 3-machine n-job problems with identical machine sequence for all jobs Branch and Bound method for solving travelling salesman problem. Replacement problems – Block and age replacement policies. PERT and CPM – basic concepts. Probability of project completion. Reliability concepts and measures, components and systems, coherent systems, reliability of coherent systems. 
  • Life-distributions, reliability function, hazard rate, common univariate life distributions – exponential, weibull, gamma, etc. Bivariate exponential distributions. Estimation of parameters and tests in these models. Notions of aging – IFR, IFRA, NBU, DMRL and NBUE classes and their duals. Loss of memory property of the exponential distribution. Reliability estimation based on failure times in variously censored life-tests and in tests with replacement of failed items. Stress-strength reliability and its estimation

(ii) Demography and Vital Statistics:

  •  Sources of demographic data, census, registration, ad-hoc surveys, Hospital records, Demographic profiles of the Indian Census. Complete life table and its main features, Uses of life table. Makehams and Gompertz curves. National life tables. UN model life tables. Abridged life tables. Stable and stationary populations. Measurement of Fertility: Crude birth rate, General fertility rate, Age specific birth rate, Total fertility rate, Gross reproduction rate, Net reproduction rate. Measurement of Mortality: Crude death rate, Standardized death rates, Age-specific death rates, Infant Mortality rate, Death rate by cause. Internal migration and its measurement, migration models, concept of international migration. Net migration. International and postcensal estimates. Projection method including logistic curve fitting. Decennial population census in India. 

iii) Survival Analysis and Clinical Trial: 

  • Concept of time, order and random censoring, likelihood in the distributions – exponential, gamma, Weibull, lognormal, Pareto, Linear failure rate, inference for these distribution. Life tables, failure rate, mean residual life and their elementary classes and their properties. Estimation of survival function – actuarial estimator, Kaplan – Meier estimator, estimation under the assumption of IFR/DFR, tests of exponentiality against non-parametric classes, total time on test. Two sample problem – Gehan test, log rank test. Semi-parametric regression for failure rate – Cox’s proportional hazards model with one and several covariates, rank test for the regression coefficient. Competing risk model, parametric and non-parametric inference for this model. Introduction to clinical trials: the need and ethics of clinical trials, bias and random error in clinical studies, conduct of clinical trials, overview of Phase I – IV trials, multicenter trials. Data management: data definitions, case report forms, database design, data collection systems for good clinical practice. 
  • Design of clinical trials: parallel vs. cross-over designs, cross-sectional vs. longitudinal designs, review of factorial designs, objectives and endpoints of clinical trials, design of Phase I trials, design of single-stage and multi-stage Phase II trials, design and monitoring of phase III trials with sequential stopping, Reporting and analysis: analysis of categorical outcomes from Phase I – III trials, analysis of survival data from clinical trials. 

(iv) Quality Control

  • Statistical process and product control: Quality of a product, need for quality control, basic concept of process control, process capability and product control, general theory of control charts, causes of variation in quality, control limits, sub grouping summary of out of control criteria, charts for attributes p chart, np chart, c-chart, V chart, charts for variables: R, (  X ,R), (  X ,σ) charts. Basic concepts of process monitoring and control; process capability and process optimization. General theory and review of control charts for attribute and variable data; O.C. and A.R.L. of control charts; control by gauging; moving average and exponentially weighted moving average charts; Cu-Sum charts using V-masks and decision intervals; Economic design of X-bar chart. Acceptance sampling plans for attributes inspection; single and double sampling plans and their properties; plans for inspection by variables for one-sided and two sided specification. 

V) Multivariate Analysis:

  • Multivariate normal distribution and its properties. Random sampling from a multivariate normal distribution. Maximum likelihood estimators of parameters, distribution of the sample mean vector. Wishart matrix – its distribution and properties, distribution of sample generalized variance, null and non-null distribution of multiple correlation coefficients. 17 Hotelling’s T2 and its sampling distribution, application in test on mean vector for one and more multivariate normal population, and also on equality of components of a mean vector in the multivariate normal population. Classification problem: Standards of good classification, the procedure of classification based on multivariate normal distributions. Principal components, dimension reduction, canonical variates, and canonical correlation — definition, use, estimation, and computation. 

vi) Design and Analysis of Experiments: 

  • Analysis of variance for one way and two way classifications, Need for design of experiments, basic principle of experimental design (randomization, replication and local control), complete analysis and layout of completely randomized design, randomized block design and Latin square design, Missing plot technique. Split Plot Design and Strip Plot Design. Factorial experiments and confounding in 2n and 3n experiments. Analysis of covariance. Analysis of non-orthogonal data. Analysis of missing data

(vii) Computing with C and R: 

  • Basics of C: Components of C language, the structure of a C program, Data type, basic data types, Enumerated data types, Derived data types, variable declaration, Local, Global, Parametric variables, Assignment of Variables, Numeric, Character, Real and String constants, Arithmetic, Relation and Logical operators, Assignment operators, Increment and decrement operators, conditional operators, Bitwise operators, Type modifiers and expressions, writing and interpreting expressions, using expressions in statements. Basic input/output. Control statements: conditional statements, if-else, nesting of if – else, else if ladder, switch statements, loops in c, for, while, do – while loops, break, continue, exit ( ), goto and label declarations, One dimensional two dimensional and multidimensional arrays. Storage classes: Automatic variables, External variables, Static variables, Scope and lifetime of declarations. Functions: classification of functions, functions definition and declaration, assessing a function, return statement, parameter passing in functions. Pointers (concept only). Structure: Definition and declaration; structure (initialization) comparison of structure variable; Array of structures : array within structures, structures within structures, passing structures to functions; Unions accessing a union member, union of structure, initialization of a union variable, uses of union. Introduction to linked list, linear linked list, insertion of a node in list, removal of a node from list. Files in C: Defining and opening a file, input – output operation on a file, creating a file, reading a file. Statistics Methods and techniques in R.

UPSC Syllabus 2020

Indian Geography

  1. Basics of India
    1. Location, latitude, longitude, time zone, etc.
    2. Neighbors
    3. Important straits
    4. States and their position
    5. States with international boundaries
  2. Physical features
    1. The Himalayas – geological formation, climate, vegetation, soil, biodiversity, physiographic divisions, major passes, significance
    2. The Great North Indian Plains – geological formation, physiographic divisions, climate, vegetation, soil, biodiversity, significance
    3. Peninsular Plateau – geological formation, Central Highlands, Deccan Plateau, Western Ghats, Eastern Ghats
    4. Indian Desert
    5. Coastal plains and islands
  3. River systems
    1. Himalayan rivers
    2. Peninsular rivers
    3. River basins
    4. Regional development and planning
    5. Hydropower projects, major dams
    6. West-flowing and east-flowing rivers
    7. Interlinking of rivers
  4. Climate
    1. Monsoons – driving mechanism, El Nino, La Nina
    2. Seasons
    3. Cyclones
  5. Minerals and industries – mineral distribution, industrial policies, location
  6. Agriculture
    1. Land utilization
    2. Types of agricultural practices
    3. Green revolution
    4. Soils and crops
    5. Irrigation
    6. Land reforms
    7. Animal husbandry
    8. Government schemes
  7. Natural vegetation and fauna
    1. Classification of natural vegetation
    2. Rainfall distribution
    3. Biosphere reserves, national parks, etc.
    4. Red-listed species
  8. Economic infrastructure
    1. Transportation (highways, inland waterways, etc.)
    2. Power and energy sector
    3. Conventional and non-conventional sources of energy
    4. Energy conservation
  9. Human Geography
    1. Demographics
    2. Recent census

World Geography

  1. Major natural regions
  2. Regional geography of developed countries
  3. Regional geography of developing countries
  4. Regional geography of South Asia

Physical Geography

  1. Geomorphology
    1. Origin of the earth
    2. Interior of the earth
    3. Types and characteristics of rocks
    4. Folding and Faulting
    5. Volcanoes, earthquakes
    6. Interior of the earth
    7. Weathering
    8. Landforms formed by fluvial, aeolian and glacial actions
  2. Climatology
    1. Atmosphere – structure, and composition
    2. Temperature
    3. Pressure belts
    4. Wind systems
    5. Clouds and types of rainfall
    6. Cyclones and anti-cyclones
    7. Major climatic types
  3. Oceanography
    1. Ocean relief
    2. Temperature, salinity
    3. Ocean deposits
    4. Ocean currents
    5. El Nino and La Nina
    6. Waves and tides
  4. Biogeography
    1. Soil – origin, and types
    2. Major biomes of the world
    3. Ecosystem, food chain
    4. Environmental degradation and conservation

Human Geography

  1. Man & environment; relationship, growth, and development of human geography; determinism and possibilism
  2. Population, tribes, migration
  3. Economic activities – agriculture, manufacturing, industries, tertiary activities
  4. Settlements, urbanization, functional classification of towns, million-cities, and megacities


UPSC IAS Exam has three stages:

  1. Civil Services (Preliminary) Examination (Objective Type) for the selection of candidates for the Mains Exam.
  2. Civil Services Mains Examination (Written) for the selection of candidates for the next level of the UPSC IAS Exam.
  3. Civil Services Personality Test (PT)- The final stage for selection

UPSC IAS Syllabus Prelims Exam 2020: GS Paper I

Sl. NoSubject-wise DivisionDetailed Syllabus
1HistoryAncient History of IndiaMedieval History of IndiaModern History 1857 to 1947Indian National Movement
2GeographyPhysical GeographyHuman GeographyEconomic GeographyWorld Geography
3PolityUnion ExecutivesState ExecutivesFederalism in IndiaJudicial SystemPanchayati Raj
4EconomyBasic Principles of Indian EconomySocial Schemes of GovernmentSocial Development through Economic EmpowermentSustainable DevelopmentDemographics
5Environment and EcologyPrinciples of Environment and EcologyGeneral PrinciplesClimate Change andClimate Summits and Conferences
6General ScienceGeneral PrinciplesLatest Science and Technological Development
7Current EventsCurrent AffairsCurrent Affairs with all Dimensions
(UPSC Syllabus 2020)

UPSC IAS Syllabus Prelims Exam 2020: General Studies Paper II

1. Reading Comprehension

2. Interpersonal skills including communication skills;

3. Logical reasoning and analytical ability

4. Decision making and problem-solving ability

5. General mental ability

6. Basic numeracy (numbers and their relations, orders of magnitude, etc.) (Class X level), Data interpretation (charts, graphs, tables, data sufficiency etc. – Class X level)

7. English Language Comprehension skills (Class X level).

8. Questions relating to English Language Comprehension skills of Class X level (last item in the Syllabus of Paper-II) will be tested through passages from English language only without providing Hindi translation thereof in the question paper.

IAS Main Exam 2020 Syllabus

it can be said that the IAS Main Syllabus is a mammoth expansion of the IAS Prelims Syllabus.

Sl. No.Name of PaperSyllabusMarks
1Essay PaperAny Topic/Topics (Current issues)250
2GS Paper IIndian Heritage and Culture, Indian History, World History, World Geography, Indian Society, Important Geophysical phenomena250
3GS Paper IIGovernance, Indian Constitution, Polity, Social Justice andInternational relationsWelfare SchemesStatutory, regulatory and quasi-judicial bodiesRole of civil services in a democracyIndia’s relation with neighbor countries, International institutions250
4GS Paper IIITechnology,Economic Development, Biodiversity,Environment,Indian Economy and its various sectorsGovernment BudgetingLand ReformsInclusive GrowthSecurity and Disaster Management250
5GS Paper IVEthics and Human InterfaceAttitudeAptitudeEmotional IntelligenceEmotional IntelligencePublic/Civil service valueProbity in GovernanceCase study on the above topics250
6 Indian Language PaperComprehension of given passagesPrécis WritingUsage and VocabularyShort EssaysTranslation from English to the Indianlanguage and vice-versa 300
7EnglishComprehension of given passagesPrécis WritingUsage and VocabularyShort Essays 300
8Optional Paper IAs opted by Candidate250
9Optional Paper-IIAs opted by Candidate250

List of Optional Subject in IAS Mains Exam 2020(UPSC Syllabus 2020)

The List of Optional Subjects is as follows:   

  1. Agriculture
  2. Animal Husbandry and Veterinary Science
  3. Anthropology
  4. Botany
  5. Chemistry
  6. Civil Engineering
  7. Commerce and Accountancy
  8. Economics
  9. Electrical Engineering
  10. Geography
  11. Geology
  12. History
  13. Law
  14. Management
  15. Mathematics
  16. Mechanical Engineering
  17. Medical Science
  18. Philosophy
  19. Physics
  20. Political Science and International Relations
  21. Psychology
  22. Public Administration
  23. Sociology
  24. Statistics
  25. Zoology

UPSC 2018 Civil Services – Mains Exam Pattern

UPSC Mains Examination consists of nine papers, out of which two are qualifying papers (Indian Language Paper, English Paper) each of 300 marks, and seven are compulsory papers to be counted for merit each of 250 marks.

Nature of PaperPaperSubjectMarks
Qualifying
Papers
Paper A(One of the Indian languages listed below, to be selected by the candidate (from the languages listed in the Eighth Schedule to the Constitution of India) (Qualifying)300
Paper BEnglish (Qualifying)300
Papers to be counted for meritPaper IEssay250
Paper IIGeneral Studies I (Indian heritage and culture, history and geography of the world and society)250
Paper IIIGeneral Studies II (Governance, constitution, polity, social justice and international relations)250
Paper IVGeneral Studies III (Technology, economic development, biodiversity, environment, security, and disaster management)250
Paper VGeneral Studies IV(ethics, integrity, and aptitude)250
Optional Subject – Paper 1One paper on the subject to be selected by the candidate from the list of optional subjects250
Optional Subject – Paper 2One paper on the subject to be selected by the candidate from the list of optional subjects250
 Total (Mains Written Test)1750

UPSC 2018 Syllabus for Civil Services – Prelims Exam

UPSC CSE Preliminary Exam syllabus is mainly formulated to assess the candidate’s awareness and Knowledge about current affairs and aptitude, also to judge the answering skill within the stipulated time. Detailed Syllabus for each paper of UPSC CSE Prelims exam is granted below.

General Studies Paper I Syllabus: (UPSC Syllabus 2020)

  • Current events of national and international importance
  •  History of India and Indian national movement
  • Indian and World Geography – Physical, Social, Economic Geography of India and the world
  • Indian Polity and Governance – Constitution, Political system, Panchayati Raj, Public Policy, Rights issues, etc.
  • Economic and Social development – Sustainable development, Poverty, Inclusion, Demographics, Social Sector Initiatives etc.
  • General issues on environmental ecology, Bio-diversity and Climate change – that donot require subject specialization
  • General science.

General Studies Paper II – Aptitude Syllabus: (UPSC Syllabus 2020)

  • Comprehension
  • Interpersonal skills including communication skills
  • Logical reasoning and analytical ability
  • Decision making and problem solving
  • General mental ability
  • Basic numeracy (numbers and their relations, orders of magnitude etc.) (Class X level),
  • Data Interpretation (charts, graphs, tables, data sufficiency etc. – Class X level)

UPSC 2018 Syllabus for Civil Services – Mains Exam

The major purpose of UPSC IAS Main Examination is to assess the overall intellectual traits and depth of understanding of candidates. Questions under General Studies are asked in the level such that a well educated person can able to answer without any specialized study. These papers are to test Candidate’s General awareness on various subjects, basic understanding of several issues, analyzing ability and more which are relevant for a career in Civil Services. The standard of the syllabus of General Studies papers are of degree level. The standard of the syllabus of optional paper is higher than the bachelor’s degree but lower than the master’s level. In the case of Engineering, Medical Science and Law, the Syllabus Level corresponds to the bachelor’s degree.

Syllabus for UPSC Mains Exam – Qualifying Paper A – Indian Languages

Questions under the Paper on Indian Languages will be of Matriculation or equivalent standard and will be of qualifying nature only. The marks obtained in these papers will not be counted for final ranking. Questions on this paper are of the following pattern:

  • Comprehension of given passages
  • Precis Writing
  • Usage and Vocabulary
  • Short Essays
  • Translation from English to the Indian language and vice-versa

This examination is offered in the following languages, with the name of the script in brackets:

  • Assamese (Assamese)
  • Bengali (Bengali)
  • Bodo (Devanagari)
  • Dogri (Devanagari)
  • Gujarati (Gujarati)
  • Hindi (Devanagari)
  • Kannada (Kannada)
  • Konkani (Devanagari)
  • Maithili (Devanagari)
  • Malayalam (Malayalam)
  • Marathi (Devanagari)
  • Nepali (Devanagari)
  • Oriya (Oriya)
  • Punjabi (Gurumukhi)
  • Sanskrit (Devanagari)
  • Santhali (Devanagari or Ol Chiki)
  • Sindhi (Devanagari or Arabic)
  • Tamil (Tamil)
  • Telugu (Telugu)
  • Urdu (Persian)

Syllabus for UPSC Mains Exam – Qualifying Paper B – English

Questions under the Paper on the English Language will be of Matriculation or equivalent standard and will be of qualifying nature only. The marks obtained in these papers will not be counted for final ranking. Questions on this paper are of the following pattern:

  • Comprehension of given passages
  • Precis Writing
  • Usage and Vocabulary
  • Short Essays

Syllabus for UPSC Mains Exam – Paper I – Essay

In this paper, Candidates have to write essays on multiple topics given. They will be expected to keep close to the subject of the essay to arrange their ideas in orderly fashion and to write concisely. Credit will be given for effective and exact expression. They have to express the central idea of the topic clearly.

Syllabus for UPSC Mains Exam – Paper II – General Studies-I

Indian Heritage and Culture, History and Geography of the World and Society

  • Indian culture will cover the salient aspects of Art Forms, Literature and Architecture from ancient to modern times.
  • Modern Indian history from about the middle of the eighteenth century until the present- significant events, personalities, issues
  • The Freedom Struggle – its various stages and important contributors /contributions from different parts of the country.
  • Post-independence consolidation and reorganization within the country.
  • History of the world will include events from 18th century such as industrial revolution, world wars, redrawing of national boundaries, colonization, decolonization, political philosophies like communism, capitalism, socialism etc.- their forms and effect on the society.
  • Salient features of Indian Society, Diversity of India.
  • Role of women and women’s organization, population and associated issues, poverty and developmental issues, urbanization, their problems and their remedies.
  • Effects of globalization on Indian society
  • Social empowerment, communalism, regionalism & secularism.
  • Salient features of world’s physical geography.
  • Distribution of key natural resources across the world (including South Asia and the Indian sub-continent); factors responsible for the location of primary, secondary, and tertiary sector industries in various parts of the world (including India)
  • Important Geophysical phenomena such as earthquakes, Tsunami, Volcanic activity, cyclone etc., geographical features and their location- changes in critical geographical features (including water-bodies and ice-caps) and in flora and fauna and the effects of such changes.

Syllabus for UPSC Mains Exam – Paper III – General Studies – II

Governance, Constitution, Polity, Social Justice and International relations

  • Indian Constitution- historical underpinnings, evolution, features, amendments, significant provisions and basic structure.
  • Functions and responsibilities of the Union and the States, issues, and challenges pertaining to the federal structure, devolution of powers and finances up to local levels and challenges therein.
  • Separation of powers between various organs disputes redressal mechanisms and institutions.
  • Comparison of the Indian constitutional scheme with that of other countries
  • Parliament and State Legislatures – structure, functioning, the conduct of business, powers & privileges and issues arising out of these.
  • Structure, organization, and functioning of the Executive and the Judiciary Ministries and Departments of the Government; pressure groups and formal/informal associations and their role in the Polity.
  • Salient features of the Representation of People’s Act.
  • Appointment to various Constitutional posts, powers, functions, and responsibilities of various Constitutional Bodies.
  • Statutory, regulatory and various quasi-judicial bodies
  • Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation.
  • Development processes and the development industry the role of NGOs, SHGs, various groups and associations, donors, charities, institutional and other stakeholders
  • Welfare schemes for vulnerable sections of the population by the Centre and States and the performance of these schemes; mechanisms, laws, institutions, and bodies constituted for the protection and betterment of these vulnerable sections
  • Issues relating to development and management of Social Sector/Services relating to Health, Education, Human Resources.
  • Issues relating to poverty and hunger.
  • Important aspects of governance, transparency, and accountability, e-governance- applications, models, successes, limitations, and potential; citizens charters, transparency & accountability and institutional and other measures.
  • Role of civil services in a democracy.
  • India and its neighborhood- relations.
  • Bilateral, regional and global groupings and agreements involving India and/or affecting India’s interests
  • Effect of policies and politics of developed and developing countries on India’s interests, Indian diaspora.
  • Important International institutions, agencies, and fora, their structure, mandate.

Syllabus for UPSC Mains Exam – Paper IV – General Studies – III

Technology, economic development, bio-diversity, environment, security and disaster management

  • Indian Economy and issues relating to planning, mobilization of resources, growth, development, and employment.
  • Inclusive growth and issues arising from it.
  • Government Budgeting.
  • Major crops cropping patterns in various parts of the country, different types of irrigation and irrigation systems storage, transport and marketing of agricultural produce and issues and related constraints; e-technology in the aid of farmers
  • Issues related to direct and indirect farm subsidies and minimum support prices; Public Distribution System objectives, functioning, limitations, revamping; issues of buffer stocks and food security; Technology missions; economics of animal-rearing.
  • Food processing and related industries in India- scope and significance, location, upstream and downstream requirements, supply chain management.
  • Land reforms in India.
  • Effects of liberalization on the economy, changes in industrial policy and their effects on industrial growth.
  • Infrastructure: Energy, Ports, Roads, Airports, Railways etc.
  • Investment models.
  • Science and Technology- developments and their applications and effects in everyday life 
  • Achievements of Indians in science & technology; indigenization of technology and developing new technology.
  • Awareness in the fields of IT, Space, Computers, robotics, nanotechnology, biotechnology and issues relating to intellectual property rights.
  • Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation, environmental impact assessment
  • Disaster and disaster management.
  • Linkages between development and spread of extremism.
  • Role of external state and non-state actors in creating challenges to internal security.
  • Challenges to internal security through communication networks, the role of media and social networking sites in internal security challenges, basics of cyber security; money-laundering and its prevention
  • Security challenges and their management in border areas; linkages of organized crime with terrorism
  • Various Security forces and agencies and their mandate

Syllabus for UPSC Mains Exam – Paper V – General Studies – IV

Ethics, Integrity, and Aptitude
This paper will include questions to test the candidate’s attitude and approach to issues relating to integrity, probity in public life and his problem-solving approach to various issues and conflicts faced by him in dealing with society. Questions may utilize the case study approach to determine these aspects. The following broad areas will be covered.

  • Ethics and Human Interface: Essence, determinants, and consequences of Ethics in human actions; dimensions of ethics; ethics in private and public relationships.

Human Values – lessons from the lives and teachings of great leaders, reformers and administrators; the role of family, society and educational institutions in inculcating values.

  • Attitude: content, structure, function; its influence and relation with thought and behavior; moral and political attitudes; social influence and persuasion.
  • Aptitude and foundational values of Civil Service, integrity, impartiality and non-partisanship, objectivity, dedication to public service, empathy, tolerance and compassion towards the weaker-sections.
  • Emotional intelligence-concepts, and their utilities and application in administration and governance.
  • Contributions of moral thinkers and philosophers from India and world.
  • Public/Civil service values and Ethics in Public administration: Status and problems; ethical concerns and dilemmas in government and private institutions; laws, rules, regulations and conscience as sources of ethical guidance; accountability and ethical governance; strengthening of ethical and moral values in governance; ethical issues in international relations and funding; corporate governance.
  • Probity in Governance: Concept of public service; Philosophical basis of governance and probity; Information sharing and transparency in government, Right to Information, Codes of Ethics, Codes of Conduct, Citizen’s Charters, Work culture, Quality of service delivery, Utilization of public funds, challenges of corruption.
  • Case Studies on above issues.

Optional Subjects of UPSC Civil Services Main Examination

There are 26 optional subjects in UPSC Civil Services Mains Examination. The standards of questions in Optional papers is of Post Graduate level. Paper I is theoretical but Paper II is often dominated by Current Affairs and Application based questions. The entire list of optional subjects in UPSC Civil Services Mains Examination are:

  • Agriculture
  • Animal Husbandry and Veterinary Science
  • Anthropology
  • Botany
  • Chemistry
  • Civil Engineering
  • Commerce and Accountancy
  • Economics
  • Electrical Engineering
  • Geography
  • Geology
  • History
  • Law
  • Literature of any one of the non-English languages listed above
  • Management
  • Mathematics
  • Mechanical Engineering
  • Medical Science
  • Philosophy
  • Physics
  • Political Science and International Relations
  • Psychology
  • Public Administration
  • Sociology
  • Statistics
  • Zoology

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